Clinical Supervision:

A Competency-Based Approach, Second Edition


Carol A. Falender, PhD and

Edward P. Shafranske, PhD


March 2021




Clinical supervision is the cornerstone of professional training in psychology.


In this long-awaited second edition of their now-classic guide, Falender and Shafranske demonstrate the clinical supervisor’s central role in orienting and socializing graduate students, interns, and postdoctoral fellows into psychology as a profession.


The authors promote a competency-based approach to supervision, wherein supervisors establish expectations and standards to help new clinicians build clinical competence, develop their professional identity, and shape future practice with psychology’s values and hopes.

The chapters cover such topics as what makes for good and effective supervision, building multiculturalism and diversity competence in supervision, alliance in supervisory relationships, ethical and legal perspectives and risk management, and evaluation in the supervisory process.

This updated edition incorporates the best of 15 years of research developments and evidence-based practice in clinical supervision.

Consultation in Psychology:

A Competency-based Approach


Carol A. Falender, PhD and

Edward P. Shafranske, PhD


October 2019




Increasingly, psychologists are being enlisted to provide consultation in clinical, health, corporate, and community settings, although many have received only minimal training in consultation. This volume provides a comprehensive foundation to develop or enhance consultation practice.


Consultation is a distinct professional practice with goals and functions different from direct clinical service or clinical supervision. While all consultation settings require certain basic competencies, each setting requires additional unique ones.


Thus, the opening chapters of this book introduce a competency-based, multicultural, and ethical approach to consultation that is relevant to all contexts, while subsequent chapters build on this foundation and describe the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for consultation in a variety of specific contexts. These include medical, pediatric, forensic, school, corporate, leadership, family, religious, police, and military settings.


Both students and practicing psychologists will benefit from this essential guide.



Fundamentos Básicos Para La Práctica Clínica De La Supervisión Basada En Competencias


Carol A. Falender, PhD and

Edward P. Shafranske, PhD





Este libro es parte de la serie Fundamentos de Supervisión Clínica de la Asociación Americana de Psicología, un recurso central para comprender los modelos contemporáneos de supervisión en psicoterapia. Cada libro presenta una revisión concisa de la historia, principios, técnicas, y procesos de un enfoque particular de supervisión incluyendo un análisis detallado de una sesión de supervisión discutiendo la evidencia que apoya ese enfoque. Estos libros son una guía indispensable tanto para que estudiantes aprendan cómo supervisar como para que profesionales que buscan referencias que les ayuden a mejorar sus destrezas de supervisión.


Supervision Essentials for the Practice of Competency-Based Supervision (Clinical Supervision Essentials)


Carol A. Falender, PhD and

Edward P. Shafranske, PhD


September 2016



Order: Amazon

Individual Chapters: APA PsycNet


This concise text describes a trans-theoretical approach that has been the gold standard in supervisory practice for nearly two decades. The authors show readers how to identify, assess, and track the knowledge, specific skills, broad attitudes, and human values that undergird a series of professional competencies spanning the breadth of clinical practice. Case examples illuminate the supervisory give-and-take as trainees develop competence in areas such as professional values, sensitivity to individual and cultural differences, ethical and legal standards, self-care, scientific knowledge and methods, applying evidence-based practice, and more. From practicum, to internship and general practice, the competency-based approach offers clear training goals that organize and focus the supervisor's attention where it's needed most. This book also includes dialogue from the authors' supervision session with a real trainee as shown in the DVD Competency-Based Supervision.



Multiculturalism and Diversity in Clinical Supervision: A Competency-Based Approach


Carol A. Falender, PhD and

Edward P. Shafranske, PhD and Celia J. Falicov


March 2014


296 Pages


Order: APA | Amazon

Individual Chapters: APA PsycNet

Downloads: Amazon Kindle


This unique book presents clinical supervision as a multicultural encounter. With contributions from recognized experts, it offers both the latest scholarship and illustrations of best practices. Chapters discuss psychotherapy and supervision as cultural encounters, women and social justice, immigrants, sexual minorities, people with disabilities, religious/spiritual issues, socioeconomic status concerns, and American Indian/Alaska native perspectives. Filled with real-life examples, the book includes actual transcripts of supervisor-supervisee interactions that demonstrate how multicultural competence can be developed. This is the only scholarly and practical guide to clinical supervision focused exclusively on multicultural competence.


Getting the Most Out of Clinical Supervision:

A Guide for Practicum Students and Interns


Carol A. Falender, PhD and

Edward P. Shafranske


December 2011


304 Pages


Order: APA | Amazon


Downloads: Amazon Kindle


Today's therapists work with diverse clients whose cultural values and attitudes differ in varying degrees from their own. Effective training and supervision are necessary to avoid and resolve conflicts.


This practical guide presents a model for developing multicultural competence within supervision. The model emphasizes self-assessment to define the cultural niche of each member of the supervision triad (therapist, client, and supervisor). Both supervisor and supervisee maintain an attitude of cultural humility and "metacompetence" (knowing what you don't know) to better inform case conceptualization, diagnosis, and treatment.


In-depth supervisory vignettes apply the model to a variety of cultural dimensions, including gender, ethnicity/race, immigration, socioeconomic status, disabilities, religion, and sexual orientation.


Clinical Supervision :

A Competency-Based Approach


Carol A. Falender, PhD and

Edward P. Shafranske, PhD, ABPP


May 2004


336 Pages


Order: APA

Individual Chapters: APA PsycNet

Downloads: Amazon Kindle


Clinical Supervision: A Competency-Based Approach is a comprehensive, up-to-date scholarly resource for training and supervising mental health practitioners. Supervision has for years been central to training psychologists and other mental health professionals in clinical settings, and in that time supervisors have worked with little or no framework or guidance. Supervisors need no longer tolerate this state of affairs: This presentation of theory and research is tailored to contemporary practice and training requirements with an emphasis on the identification and development of specific competencies in both trainees and their supervisors.


This book guides readers through a science-informed process of supervision that clearly delineates the competencies required for good practice. The authors have geared this integrative approach to mental health professionals who currently provide supervision in academic, training, and treatment settings as well as to students and practitioners who are studying the supervision research and theory for the first time. Clinical Supervision provides guidance on both clinical and supervisory competencies and accounts for recent legislative initiatives mandating training in supervision. This will be the standard resource on supervisory and clinical competence for many years to come.


Casebook for Clinical Supervision:

A Competency-Based Approach


Carol A. Falender, PhD and

Edward P. Shafranske, PhD, ABPP (Eds.)


May 2008


272 Pages


Order: APA

Individual Chapters: APA PsycNet

Downloads: Amazon Kindle


Supervision plays a central role in the clinical training of mental health professionals. In Clinical Supervision: A Competency-Based Approach (APA, 2004), Falender and Shafranske created a comprehensive resource for the supervision of mental health practitioners. In this companion casebook, the editors have enlisted an elite group of contributors to help make the leap from theory and research to the real-life, hands-on implementation of the elements of successful supervision.


The Casebook provides specific exemplars with expert commentary and detailed excerpts from actual supervisory sessions. The authors describe supervision as "the process of becoming competent, the process of psychotherapy, and the process of developing as a supervisor. The book examines the supervision relationship in detail and includes supervision tools to help supervisors implement best practices within a competency-based framework. Emphasis is on collaborative practice.


Whether used alone or in conjunction with the earlier volume, the Casebook for Clinical Supervision will be the standard resource for supervisory competence for years to come.


효과적인 슈퍼비전이란 무엇인가 (Korean)



Carol A. Falender, PhD and

Edward P. Shafranske, PhD, ABPP (Eds.)


역자 : 유미숙, 정윤경, 전성희

판형 : 4x6배판변형 / 제본 : 반양장

페이지 : 416p

ISBN : 978-89-997-0586-1 93180

발행일 : 2015-01-20






심리치료의 장면보다 더 힘든 일은 심리치료 슈퍼비전 시간이다. 심리치료 장면은 내가 나를 온전히 느끼며 내담자와의 관계 속에서 성장을 만들어가는 과정이지만, 슈퍼비전은 슈퍼바이저가 슈퍼바이지를 통해 내담자에게까지 이르는 변화를 기대해야 해서 더 어려울 수밖에 없다. 특히 대학에서 심리치료 훈련생들을 지도할 때는 석사과정, 박사과정 학생의 각자 역량이 다른 학생들을 어떻게 지도할지가 늘 어려운 과제였다.


심리치료사의 훈련과정은 많으나 슈퍼비전의 훈련과정은 부족한 현실에서 이 책이 큰 도움이 될 것이라 생각하면서 번역서를 내놓는다. 이 책이 대학이나 임상 현장에서 상담자나 심리치료자를 양성하는 데 기여하기를 희망하며, 이 책에 소개되는 많은 평가 척도를 활용하면 보다 과학적인 슈퍼비전 연구의 틀을 제공하는 데 기여하리라 확신한다.

臨床督導-專業知能本位督導模式 (Chinese)



書名: 臨床督導-專業知能本位督導模式

作/譯者: Carol A. Falender & Edward P. Shafranske著;高慧芬譯






售價:NT :450






Ethics and Clinical Supervision in an Era of Globalization Applied Psychology Around the World - October 2022 Carol A. Falender, Pepperdine University


Falender, C., Goodyear, R., Duan, C., Al-Darmaki, F., Bang, K., Çiftçi, A., ... & Partridge, S. (2021). Lens on international clinical supervision: Lessons learned from a cross-national comparison of supervision. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 51, 181-189.


Hutman, H., Enyedy, K., Ellis, M., Goodyear, R., Falender, C., Campos, A., ... & Zetzer, H. (2021). Training Public Sector Clinicians in Competency-Based Clinical Supervision: Methods, Curriculum, and Lessons Learned. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 1-11.


Falender, C. (2020). Ethics of Clinical Supervision: An International Lens.

Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 13(1), 43–54. DOI: 10.11621/pir.2020.0104


Duan, C., Falender, C., Goodyear, R. K., Qian, M., Jia, X. & Jiang, G.  (2019).  Telesupervision of Supervision across National boundaries: U.S. and China.  Journal of Clinical Psychology/In Session, 75, 303-312.  doi: 10.1002/jclp.22723


Competency-based standards and guidelines for psychology practice in Australia: opportunities and risks - March 17, 2021


Duan, C., Falender, C., Goodyear, R. K., Qian, M., Jia, X. & Jiang, G.  (2019).  Telesupervision of Supervision across National boundaries: U.S. and China.  Journal of Clinical Psychology/In Session, 75, 303-312.  doi: 10.1002/jclp.22723


"Competency-Based Assessment and Evaluation: Advancing Clinical Supervision" (2019) by Danielle Keenan-Miller, PhD; Olga Belik, PhD; & Carol Falender, PhD



Falender, C. A. (2018) Distinguished career contributions to education and training in psychology award:  Carol A. Falender.  American Psychologist, 73, 1237-1239


Falender, C. A. (2018). Clinical supervision:  The missing ingredient.  American Psychologist, 73, 1240-1250


Goodyear, R. K. & Falender, C.  (2017).  How psychologists can maximize their effectiveness as supervisors: Eight essential conditions. ¿Cómo pueden psicólogos/as maximizar su efectividad como supervisores/as? Ocho condiciones esenciales.  La supervisión: Perspectivas y horizontes nacionales e internacionales - Edición Especial sobre Supervisión. Revista Psicólogos, ano VII, 20a, 83-96.


Falender, C. A., & Shafranske, E. P. (2017) Competency-based clinical supervision: Status, opportunities, tensions, and the future. Australian Psychologist. doi:



Goodyear, R., Falender, C. A., & Rousmaniere, T. (2017). Ethical Issues Regarding supervision and consultation in private practice.  In S. Walfish, J. Zimmerman, & J. Barnett (Eds).  Handbook of Private Practice, pp. 443-458.  Oxford University Press.


"Multicultural Clinical Supervision"

Carol Falender, PhD and Tonya Wood, PhD (2016)


Falender, C. A. (2016). Multiple roles and boundaries in clinical supervision. California Board

of Psychology Fall Journal, 11, 12-15, 18.



Grus, C. L., Falender, C.,Fouad, N. A., & Lavelle, A. K. (2016). A culture of competence: A survey of implementation of competency-based education and assessment. Training and Education in Professional Psychology.



Falender, C. A., & Wood, T. (2016). Multicultural clinical supervision. The California Psychologist, Winter, pp. 12-15.



Falender, C. A. (2016). Multiple relationships and clinical supervision in O. Zur,

(Ed.). Multiple Relationships in Psychotherapy and Counseling: Unavoidable, Common and Mandatory Dual Relations in Therapy. (pp. 209-220). New York: Routledge.



Falender, C. A., Grus, C., McCutcheon, S., D., Goodyear, R., Ellis, M. V., Doll, B. Kaslow, N. (2016). Guidelines for Clinical Supervision in Health Service Psychology: Evidence and implementation strategies. Psychotherapy Bulletin (Division 29), 51(3), 6-18.



Shafranske, E. P., & Falender, C. A., (2016). Clinical Supervision. In J. C. Norcross, G. R. VandenBos & D. K. Freedheim (Eds.), APA Handbook of Clinical Psychology Volume V: Education and Profession.  Washington, DC:  American Psychological Association.



American Psychological Association (including Carol A. Falender, 2015). Guidelines for Clinical Supervision in Health Service Psychology.  American Psychologist, 70, 33 – 46.



Younggren, J., & Falender, C. A. (2015).  Supervising isn’t easy.  The National Registry,

Retrieved from:



Falender, C. A., & Lee, E. (2015).  New guidelines and best supervision practices.  Psychotherapy Bulletin, 50(4).  35-39.



Falender, C. A. (2014).  Gotta be sexting? Adolescents in the digital age.  Review of: Adolescent behavior in the digital age:  Considerations for clinicians, legal professionals, and educators.  Psyccritiques, 59, 42 (6).



Falender, C. A. (2014).  Supervision outcomes:  Beginning the journey beyond the Emperor’s new clothes.  Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 8, 143-148.  doi:  10.1037/tep0000066



Falender, C. A., Shafranske, E. P., & Olek, A. (2014).  Competent clinical supervision:  Emerging effective practices.  Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 27(4), 393-408. doi:  10.1080/09515070.2014.934785



Pettifor, J., Sinclair, C., & Falender, C. A. (2014).  Ethical supervision:  Harmonizing rules and ideals in a globalizing world.  Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 8(2), 1-10.   doi:  10.1037/tep0000046



Falender, C. A. (2014).  Clinical supervision in a competency-based era.   South African

Journal of Psychology, 44, 6-17.



Falender, C. A., & Shafranske, E. P. (2014).  Clinical supervision:  State of the Art.

Journal of Clinical Psychology In Session, 70(11), 130-141.  doi:




Falender, C. A., & Shafranske, E. P. (2014). Clinical supervision in the era of

competence. In W. B. Johnson &  N. Kaslow (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of

Education and Training in Professional Psychology (pp. 291-313).

New York, NY:  Oxford Press.


Falender, C. A., & Shafranske, E. P.  (2013).  Responsibilities and Liabilities in  Supervision.  In G. P. Koocher, J. C. Norcross, & B. A. Greene (Eds.),  Psychologists' Desk Reference (3rd. Ed.). pp. 730-734.  New York, NY: Oxford  University Press.


Falender, C. A., & Shafranske, E. P. (2013).  Clinical supervision and risk management.  The California Psychologist, 46(2), 9-11.



Falender, C. A., Ellis, M. V., & Burnes, T. (2012).  Response to Reactions to Major Contribution:  Multicultural clinical supervision and Benchmarks.  The Counseling Psychologist, 41, 140-151.  doi:  10.1177/0011000012464061



Falender, C. A., Burnes, T., & Ellis, M. (2012)  Introduction to Major Contribution:

Multicultural Clinical Supervision and Benchmarks: Empirical Support Informing Practice and Supervisor Training.  The Counseling Psychologist, 41, 8-27.  doi:  10.1177/0011000012438417



Falender, C. A. (2012).  Clinical Supervision:  A New Era.  The Los Angeles County Psychological Association.  The Los Angeles Psychologist, September-October, 16-17.



Kaslow, N. J., Falender, C. A., & Grus, C. (2012).  Valuing and Practicing Competency-Based Supervision:  A transformational leadership perspective.  Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 6, 47-54.  doi:  10.1037/a0026704








Decolonizing Clinical Supervision. Decolonizing Clinical Training.

Teacher’s College, Columbia University,

Clinical Supervision: Best Practices

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Competency-Based Clinical Supervision

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Carol Falender, Ph.D.

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in the State of California PSY 5703

310-451-1236 (Phone and Fax)


Carol Falender, Ph.D.



Clinical Professor